Low Temperature and Condensed Matter Physics
Experiments in this area can reveal how organizing principles result from
basic laws. They will show how adding stress (i.e., heating or cooling)
to uniform systems will produce variations in which identifiable patterns
can emerge. Studying states of matter (e.g., solid, liquid, gas) and the
transition from one phase to another will help us understand how similar
changes might have occurred in the early Universe, as well as improve
such human activities as weather modeling, metallurgy, and oil field recoveries.